In the previous chapter we have examined the seven chemical stages of
human creation in the light of Qur’ān and modern science. These seven
stages are inorganic matter, water, clay, adsorbable clay, old physically and
chemically altered mud, dried or highly purified clay and extract of purified
clay. The holy Qur’ān narrated these chemical stages fourteen centuries
ago which modern science has recently known after the research of many
centuries. This is really a miraculous quality of the Qur’ān. Now in this
chapter we will study the biological stages of human creation.
Biochemistry is a branch of both chemistry and biology which deals with
the study of substances found in living organisms and of the chemical reactions
underlying life processes. The prefix ‘bio’ is taken from the Greek word
‘bios’ which means life. The basic purpose of biochemistry is to know the
structure and behaviour of biomolecules. These are the carbon containing
compounds that make up the various parts of the living cell and carry out the
chemical reactions that enable it to grow, maintain and reproduce itself and use
and store energy.
A large number of biomolecules are present in the cell. The structure of
every biomolecule determines in what chemical reactions it is able to
participate and hence what role it plays in the cell’s life processes. The
most important classes of biomolecules are nucleic acids, proteins,
carbohydrates and liquids.
The responsibility of nucleic acids is to store and transfer genetic information. They are
enormous molecules made up of long strands of subunits, called bases, that are arranged in
a particular sequence. These are ‘read’ by other components of the cell and used as a
guide in making proteins.
Proteins are large molecules built up of small subunits called amino acids. Using only 20
different amino acids, a cell constructs thousand of different proteins, each of which has
a highly specialized role in the cell. The proteins of greatest interest to biomolecules are
the enzymes, which are the ‘worker’ molecules of the cell. These enzymes serve as promoters,
or catalysts of chemical reactions.
Carbohydrates are the basic molecules of the cell. They contain carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen in approximately equal amounts. Green plants and some
bacteria use a process known as photosynthesis to make simple carbohydrates
(sugar) from carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. Animals, however, obtain their
carbohydrates from foods. Once a cell possesses carbohydrates, it may break them
down to yield chemical energy or use them as raw material to produce other
Liquids are fatly substances that play different roles in the cell. Some
are held in storage for use as high-energy fuel; other serve as essential
components of the cell membrane.
Many other types of biomolecules are also present in cells. These
compounds perform such diverse duties as transporting energy from one location
in the cell to another, harnessing the energy of sunlight to drive chemical
reactions, and serving as helper molecules for enzyme action. All these
biomolecules, and the cell itself, are in a state of constant change. In fact, a
cell cannot maintain its health unless it is continually forming and breaking
down proteins, carbohydrates and liquids; repairing damaged nucleic acids and
using and storing energy. These active energy-linked processes of change are
collectively called metabolism. One major cum of biochemistry is to understand
metabolism well enough to predict and control changes that occur in cells.
Biochemical studies have yielded such benefits as treatments for many metabolic
diseases, antibiotics to combat bacteria and method to boost industrial and
agricultural productivity. These advances have been argumented in recent years
by the use of genetic engineering techniques.
The Beginning of Embryonic Development
These biochemical processes, catabolism and metabolism form the bases of
all biological growth of human organism in its various developmental stages.
They keep the system going and generate the requisite material that is consumed
in the whole biological process which we now attempt to focus.
Until recently it was not known that the Qur’ān or traditions of the Holy Prophet
Muhammad (SAW) contained many citations referring to the stages of human development. Any
such statements which were known were not clearly understood since they referred to details
in human development which were scientifically unknown.
Only with the discovery of the microscope,
along with man’s modern knowledge of anatomy, was the science of embryology
able to be developed. Ancient views about embryology can be traced to a brief
Sanskrit document that describes some aspects of embryology. However these were
inaccurate and not detailed. In the fourth century (B.C) Aristotle too studied
chick’s embryo and is often called the Father of Embryology. Yet he too held
an erroneous idea that the embryo was a nutritive soul with all bodily parts.
Similarly in the fifth century (B.C) Hypocrites made some recorded studies of
the human embryo but again without great detail. Indeed any detailed research
would have been impossible without the advent of the microscope.
Modern science tells us that the beginning of human creation is by the fertilization of
a female ovum with the male spermatozoa resulting in the formation of a zygote. While
reminding human beings of their humble origin and benevolence and power of their Creator,
Allāh the Highest has narrated this process at several places in the Qur’ān.
Some of these are:
Was not he a cell from semen which was introduced. (or gushed forth)?
So let man think from what he is created. He is created from a gushing fluid that is issued
from between sacrum and symphisis pubis.
Then he made his seed (or progeny) from a despised fluid.
Indeed we created man from a mixed or mingled fluid.
Arabic words like many other languages often carry more than one meaning of a single word.
For instance the Arabic word ‘salat’ has 60 meanings.
Here the Arabic word ‘nutfa’ is translated as fluid. At another place ‘nutfa’
means ‘cell’ or ‘seminal fluid’.
Anatomical and physiological studies reveal
to us that semen is a prerequisite for conception. A male gamete or sperm
(spermatozoon) unites with a female gamete or oocyte (ovum) to form a single
cell called a zygote. Moreover the seminal passages do indeed lie between the
sacrum referred to as sulb in the Qurā’nic verse and the symphisis
pubis referred to as tarā’ib. Yet it was only in 1677 that scientists
Hamm and Leeiwenhoek first observed human spermatozoa using an early microscope. However
they held the mistaken belief that the sperm contained a miniature human being which
enlarged when it was deposited in the female genital tract.
The constituents of the fertilized liquid have also been referred to in the Qur’ān.
The Arabic word amshāj is used to refer to mixed fluids or mingled fluids.
Indeed the spermatic liquid is excreted from four different glands’ the testicles, the seminal
vesicles, the prostrate gland and the glands of the urinary tract (Cowper’s gland or Liters glands).
A further verse of the Qur’ān, indicates how the seminal fluid gushes out and the need
for it to be motile.
Let man but think from what he is created. He is created from a drop
The grammatical analysis of the Arabic verb al-muddafiq means to emit or gush forth
Modern science has now determined that in order for fertilization to occur, the spermatozoa
must be mobile and active . It is thought that prostaglandins present in the semen stimulate
uterine motility at the time of intercourse assisting in sperm movement. It has now also been
ascertained that the female discharge which contains the ovum is expelled into
the fallopian tube and must be moving within it for fertilization to occur.
Necessity of Gametes
In 1759 the scientist Spallanzi evinced how both the sperm and ovum were necessary in order
for fertilization to take place. However this had already been divinely revealed by Prophet
Muhammad (SWA) in a Hadith attributed to him.
When the Prophet (SAW) was asked by a Jewish person, O Muhammad what is man created from? The
Prophet (SAW) answered, O Jew he is created from both the fluid of the man and fluid of the
During the fertile phase of a woman in her menstrual cycle, the civical maces which is otherwise
fairly impervious to sperm, becomes clear and gel-like through a realignment of its molecules and
allows the sperm to pass. Enzymes secreted by the linings of the uterus (endometrium)
and the oviducts remove glycoproterins from the head of the sperm and capacitate
it. Unless they have been capacitated, sperm are unable to fertilize the ova. In
addition enzymes secreted by the oviducts loosen the follicular cells surrounding the ovum,
thereby exposing its protective membrane to the sperm. It is thus apparent that Arabic Term
‘nutfa’ used in the hadith is a very comprehensive one.
The first phase of fertilization occurs with the passage of the sperm
through the female reproductive tract. Once one sperm passes through what is
known as the zona pellucida, a reaction takes place (Zona reaction) making it
impossible for other sperms to penetrate this membrane. Therefore out of
millions of sperms that are released into the uterus, only one will fuse with a
female oocyte (mature ovum). So in human, Monospermy is the answer and
Polyspermy is impossible because of (SWA) Zona Reaction (b) Vitelline Reaction.
This is aptly described in the following verse of Qur’ān:
(God) fashioned man from a small quantity (of sperm).
Nutfa is the Arabic word used here. Although there is no exact equivalent word in
English, it is used to denote a small quantity or what is left when something dribbles or trickles
down. The small quantity or nutfa is known to refer to sperm since it is mentioned in
another Qur’ānic verse:
Was man not a small quantity of sperm which has been poured out?
For further clarification see figures # 4.1 and 4.2
In this context the Qur’ān further states:
(God) made His progeny from the quintessence of lowly fluid
Here the Arabic word of sulālah, quintessence in English, means to extract or
emit or something that is part of a whole. This too is in line with modern knowledge as both the
ovum and sperm are gently extracted from their environments in the process of fertilization.
The ovum is observed to be extracted in a long stream of follicular fluid and is fertilized by one
sperm out of millions which is drawn out from the seminal fluid.
A Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) clarifies this further:
Not from all the fluid is the offspring created.
This theme is continued in a further verse of the Holy Qur’ān and a Hadith of Prophet
Allāh knows what every female womb bears and what is penetrating into the womb or
decreasing and what is increasing.
No one knows the future of what is decreasing or penetrating into the womb except
“Decreasing” in the two references above can be seen to refer to the decrease in germinal materials
at the time of fertilization. One sperm out of millions ejaculated into the cervical canal will
meet one ova from among the thousands of ova available in the ovaries. The sperm
then “penetrates” (as mentioned in the above verse) the zona pellucida of the womb (mature ovum)
causing a reaction to take place preventing any other sperm from entering. This reaction is called as Zona
It is interesting to note that it has been mentioned that only “Allāh knows” what a woman
will bear, a male or female child. In an era of modern technological advancements, when the minutest
of things can now be observed, those with little knowledge of embryology would
perhaps scorn such an idea of unknown knowledge. This is especially so since
sexual determination of the embryo takes place at fertilization when the sperm
can be observed through a microscope travelling up the female tract. If an X
chromosome bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum then that normally results in a
female. If a Y chromosome bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum then that normally
results in a male embryo. However the morphological characteristics of the male
and female only begin to develop at the seventh week. Prior to this the
indifferent gonads (testes and ovaries) are observed to be identical and not
distinguishable. Indeed only Allāh knows what a woman bears! This phase of
gonadal development is called as indifferent phase.
Process of Cellular Division (Cleavage or Segmentation)
An important Qur’ānic principle of the biological evolution of man is that it began from a
single cell. This is clearly stated at several places in the Qur’ān:
O Mankind be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single
And He is the One Who has produced you from a single cell.
And He created you from one cell.
Your creation and your resurrection are only as the creation and raising from a single
In modern terminology this single cell is called a fertilized ovum or zygote. This single cell
works as a complete unit which can develop and evolve into a future person. The concept of a zygote
being a compound cell is clearly mentioned in the following verse of Qur’ān.
Indeed We created man from a mixed cell. Then we make him hearing and
This verse also reflects the beauty of Allāh’s providence, that he created all the
potentialities of a fully grown up person with auditory, visual and comprehending faculties.
Once the sperm and oocyte fuse to form the zygote a process of cellular divsion takes place
known as “cleavage of the zygote”. Repeated mitotic divisions of the zygote increase the number
of cells into two, then four, eight and so on, eventually forming what is known as a
balstocyst. (Moore 1993). In this respect the Qur’ān beautifully
demonstrated the process of cellular division in the following verses.
O mankind be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created from a single cell and then
created another one from it to make it a pair and then from those created multitudes of
men & women.
The fact that through mitotic division of the zygote only a few number of cells take part
in the formation to the embryo (Azzindani 1982) is aptly described in the following verse:
He created him from a part of “Nutfah” and then immediately programmed him (his
Formation of the Embryo
Structure of the Uterus
Through the process of cellular division and cleavage the zygote first forms into small cells
called blastomeres, subsequently converting into blastocystes. The blastocyst embeds itself
and becomes implanted in the endomentrium of the uterus. It is interesting to note
here the structure of the uterus itself.
in his brief description of the
uterus states that the uterus is a thick walled organ consisting of three layers:
- a very thin outer serosa or perimetrium;
- a thick smooth muscle layer or myometrium;
- a thin inner layer or endometrium.
Once again the Qur’ān already eloquently describes these features in the
He makes you in the wombs of your mothers in stages one after the other in 3 veils of
darkness. This is Allāh - Your Lord. For Him is the sovereignty, so no one except
Him is worth- worshipping, so why do you turn away?
For further clarification see figure # 4.3
Implantation of the Egg in the Uterus
As mentioned earlier the blastocyst is implanted into the uterus. This is described as a place
of rest “qarārim makīn” in the Qur’ān:
And then we placed him in a secure place (womb of mother) in the form of a
Once implanted the egg increases in size by further cellular division and proliferates its roots
in the walls of the uterus. The roots draw nourishment from the uterus as circulation of the
maternal blood supply begins. This process has also been likened to the sowing of seeds in the
Your wives are as a tilth unto you so approach your tilth when or how you
traces this metaphor to Abu Hayyan
(654-754 A.D.) He explained that the coitus is like ploughing, the sperm is similar to the seed, the
uterus is like the soil and the child is like the plant.
Formation of Germ Layers
Around three weeks after fertilization, rapid development of the conceptuous begins with the
formation of germ layers, called the primitive streak
Additional cells become added to the primitive streak lengthening its form from an egg shape to a
pear shape. The Qur’ān calls this stage "‘alaqah"
in several places:
Read with the name of your Lord, the one who created man from
And then we placed him in a secure place (womb of mother) in the form of a zygote and then
we fixed him like a hanging nest (in the uterus).
has been translated as something that
or something which attaches like a
hanging nest to something or a leech or blood sucker. In fact both descriptions are extremely
appropriate for a 7-24 day old human embryo. At this stage it does look like a leech, somewhat hanging.
Just as a leech derives blood from the host, the human embryo derives blood from the decidua of
the pregnant uterus. Through the process of diffusion maternal blood is obtained through the yolk
sac. See figures # 4.4 to 4.8
Development of Somites
Towards the end of the 3rd week proceeding into the 5th week, cubodial bodies appear on the
embryonic mesoderm resembling blocks. The term “mudghah” has been used to describe
this stage in the Qur’ān:
Then we fashioned him a chewed lump. Then out of chewed lump we made bones and clothed
the bones with muscles.
The term mudghah means a chewed lump, and is used to describe the irregular
surface of the embryo containing Somites.
The somites number 44 pairs at the end of the 5th week and resemble
teeth marks. These teeth marks are the beginning of the vertebrae. See figures
4.9 to 4.11
Development of Human Bones,
Tissues and Body Form
Formation of Bones and Muscles:
The Qur’ānic verse cited earlier continues to describe the formation of bones
and muscles. Two different Arabic words are used to describe the word flesh. The first
is Mughdah, as explained earlier. The second word is “lahm”
flesh. Maurice Bucaille explains this distinction stating that the bone structure develops
inside the chewed substance called mesencheyma. The bones that are later formed are covered,
but this time with “Lahm”, intact flesh.
In fact this can also be seen as referring to the muscular system.
The Somites then give rise to most of the axial skeleton, namely the bones of the head, neck
and trunk as well as associated musculature.
This entire process is in exact accord with the Qur’ān:
And indeed we created man from elements of dust. Then we put him in a secure place in
the form of a cell. Then we made him a being like a hanging nest fixed (in the wall of
the uterus). Then we fashioned him a chewed lump. Then out of chewed lump we
made bones and clothed bones with muscles. Then gradually out of it, We
developed another creation. So blessed is your Lord who is the best of the
illustrates how the Qur’ān
also describes the mudghah
to consist of differentiated and undifferentiated components:
Then out of chewed like substance partly differentiated and partly
It is indeed true that although the analgae of all organs have formed, their function
has yet to appear. The organs are thus partly differentiated and partly undifferentiated.
Embryonic development: Weeks 4-6
By the fourth week the embryo is almost straight. Upper limb buds become recognizable
day 26 or 27 and the primordia of the internal ears are also clearly visible. The future
lenses of the eyes, called lens placodes are also visible on the sides of the
From 33-36 days the head plates
and the nasal pits are prominent. By 40 days the footplates are formed and some pigment is
visible in the retina.
In an authentic
tradition of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), called a Hadith, matches this sequence of events. It
states that the embryo has moved from the hanging stage of “Alaqah” to a more substantial
substance of “Mudghah” (somites):
In everyone of you all components of your creator are gathered together by 40 days and in that is “Alaqah”
like that, then it is “Mudghah” like that.
Embryonic Development: Weeks 6-8
These rapid developments whereby the embryo begins to take on more human like characteristics
are indicated in Surah al-Muminūn. Here once the bones are covered with “Lahm”
- intact flesh, the Qur’ān states”
Then gradually out of it We developed another creature. So Beneficent is your Lord who is the
best of the Creators.
notes how the verb ansha’
translated initially as “developed” carries two meanings’ to initiate and to cause to develop. At 12
weeks the nails of the fetus are growing on the fingers and toes and hair is present on the skin, hence
the word initiate is used. Further developments take place gradually in the growth of the body and limbs
themselves. The verb “ansha’a
” thus has a comprehensive application. In other Hadith of the Holy
Prophet (SAW), it is narrated”
When 42 nights have passed over the Nutfah, Allāh sends an Angel to it, who
shapes it and makes its ears, eyes, skin, flesh, and bones. Then he says, “Oh Lord is
it male or female?” And your Lord decides what he wishes and then the angel records
It is interesting to note that the Angels ask Allāh “is it male or female?” Although
the gender of the embryo is determined at fertilization the morphological characteristics
of the male and female only begin to develop at the 7th week and visible at 9 weeks. The
query noted by the Angels matches modern day observations. For further clarification
see figures 4.16 to 4.18
Development of the Fetus and Birth
Viability of the Fetus
According to embryological studies if a fetus is born after 26 weeks it can survive given
intensive care. At this stage the lungs have developed enough to be capable of breathing
air. The nervous system has also developed enough to regulate breathing and control the
In this regard the
His mother bore him with difficulty and then delivered him with pains and duration of pregnancy
and weaning him off is (approximately) 30 months.
His separation is at the end of two years.
Mothers shall breast feed their offspring for two whole years, for those who want to complete
the breast feeding.
These verses give the total time of pregnancy and weaning as 32 months. Two years is prescribed
specifically for breast-feeding. This leaves a remaining six months as the duration given for
pregnancy. At face value this would seem in contradiction with the normal term of nine months
attributed to pregnancy. However the six months indicated does in fact correspond with the
viability of a fetus, since a fetus of 26 weeks can survive if born (Moore and Persuade 1993).
Hence the Ayah’s above accurately reflect this fact.
The expected delivery date usually occurs around 38 weeks after fertilization takes place.
Normally the vagina and cervix of a woman is very small and. unable to allow passage of a
38- week fetus through its canals. However, God being merciful states in the Qur’ān:
Then we made the passage (through the birth canal) easy.
Modern embryological knowledge confirms this. The uterus of a pregnant woman increases in size
to accommodate the growing fetus. It increases in height and its walls become thinner. Then uterine
contractions release several hormones initiating labor and indeed making the passage smoother and
Miscellaneous aspects of Human Creation
I would like to present here a few more aspects of human creation, some of which are beyond
the scope of pure sciences like embryology. Moreover these are presented to draw attention to
the providence and benevolence of our Creator. This latter motive is of course, the objective
of our treatise and that of the Qur’ān.
Divine Providence & Beautiful Order in Human Creation (Man’s Formation)
We clearly witness innumerable, tangible and intangible evidences of Allāh’s providence at
every step of human development. Every stage is a reflection of a beautiful order and management.
For different intra-uterine states and functions a clear discipline and duration is maintained.
All the requirements of each and every stage are automatically fulfilled. The human body is prepared
fully with all its requirements ready to meet the conditions and needs and achieve the objectives of
later life. Not only are all these developmental stages nurtured properly but they are also fully
protected in the womb of the mother. The Quran describes 4 aspects of human
- Determining measures
Praise the name of your Allāh, the highest, Who created and then arranged it in
proper order. And He ordained an estimate (of all his potentialities and needs and then guided
Takhlīq (creation) and Tasviah (arrangement)
This has been discussed in detail from the stages of zygote to khalq ākhar
a new creation. Every stage has a time-table during which certain developments take place
and then it passes on to the next stage. Again refer to Al-Ana’am 6: 98, where in it is stated:
And He is your lord Who creates you from a single cell and lets you stay for a fixed time in a
temporary station and then you pass on to the next station (like a trust) and thus Allāh
describes His verses for people of understanding.
In this verse, words mustaqar and mastoda are worth pondering.
‘Mustaqar’ means to stay temporarily at one station. ‘mastoda’ means to pass on
to the next station. The first step in human creation is the meeting of father’s sperm with
the mothers ovum. An amazing phenomenon of the Creator’s system is observed here, that as soon
as the ovum is fertilized by the first sperm then the rest of approximately 400 million sperms,
present in an average person’s ejaculation, are prevented to meet this ovum by a barrier. This
fertilized zygote, after passing through different creative stages, described earlier gets human
resemblance at 6-8 weeks of age. Then with the development of muscules, skeletal system and nervous
system, the creative state is completed and he is given a shape as Allāh likes. Thus transformation
from khalq to tasviah is decided by Allāh, the Highest.
And We cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for an appointed term.
It is also a well-known embryological fact that many embryos abort during the first month of
development and that only 30% of zygotes develop into fetuses that survive until birth. As the
above verse states, it is not conclusive that all embryos will survive, Instead Allāh
the Almighty decides who “will rest in the wombs for a fix term”.
Taqdīr (determining measures)
This tasviah (arrangement) and later tasvīr (personification) and then the
appearance of specific feature characteristic and individualities are also determined by the
principle of taqdīr by Almighty Allāh. The Qur’ān declares:
It is He Who created all things and ordered them in due
Allāh has created the essence of a human being in a single cell, which is verified by
the science of genetics. Modern research has shown that the characteristics and potentialities
of all the human beings are written on the molecules of DNA present in the genes of a father’s
sperm and mother’s ovum like a precoded computer programme. These genes determine or estimate the
existence, appearance, size, functions, duration of development and its completion etc. Another
reference to this system of creation & estimation is hereby mentioned.
From what stuff Allāh has created him? Out of a semen drop! He created him and determined
his measure (regarding genes and sex). Then (after structuring, developing and completing it)
facilitates for him the passage (of delivery from the mother’s womb). Then causes him to die,
next (stows him) into a grave. Then whenever He may wish, He will (resurrecting) raise them up
Manifestation of Providence during Pregnancy
While the embryo and fetus are passing through different stages, Allāh’s system of
sustenance is fulfilling all its needs. A little reflection only in the following four
requirements or arrangements demonstrates the benevolence of such a perfect and all-powerful
system of Allāh, that incites thinking of every rational person:
- (Taghziah) Nutrition
- (Hifazah) Security or protection
- (Harakah) Movements
- (Takayyuf Hararah) Temperature Control
The development of fetal and placental circulation not only ensures
adequate nutrition and supply of oxygen but also helps excretion of fetal
wastes. Similarly, the position and covering of the fetus not only protects the
fetus well, but also allows its necessary movements. Additionally both of these
systems maintain the required temperature for the developing human being.
When the fetus develops to the point that it can live out of the mother’s womb, it is
transferred out by the birth process. Now his dietary needs change and the providence
of Allāh has rearranged for that in the form of mother’s milk. The whole process
of human prenatal development is given in a sequence in the following table.
The gist of the discussion is that the Holy Qur’ān is the supreme
source of knowledge which embraces all human and cosmic phenomena. It furnishes
us not only a cogent and elaborate explanation of man’s inner propulsions and
outer compulsions, but also provides us deep insight into the subtle operations
of the universe, broadening both our vision and perspective. The Qur’ān
blazed the torch of inductive method, trumpeted so enthusiastically by the
present-day scientist, and pulled man out of the mist of abstract speculation
into the light of reasoning based on observation and experimentation. In this
sense, it possesses a conceptual as well as a practical dimension.
The Qur’ān offers a simple explanation of the creation of man. It
gives us a black-and-white presentation, and steers clear of the gray zones
which are a distinctive feature of the modern philosophical outlook. Modern
philosophy, both secular and materialist, operates in a vacuum of uncertainty
and fuzziness. As a result, the present-day philosophers are not only confused
in themselves but also tend to confuse others. Instead of providing us with
clear-cut explanations of the origin of life, they are stuck up in the grooves
of logical hair-splitting and spurious reasoning. The essential mystery of life
eludes them and they resemble butter-fingered fielders who drop catch after
catch and eventually not only suffer from personal frustration but also lead
their entire team to a crushing fiasco. The Holy Qur’ān, through its
cut-glass message and its lucid packaging, challenges “the heap of broken
images” they have piled up in support of their philosophies and
interpretations. The Qur’ānic concept of divine unity makes its message
effective and authentic by relating the diversity of phenomena to the unitary
soured of creation. It is this belief in the unity and indivisibility of the
creator that dispels all doubts and dubious human engagements, and shows the
light of hope and optimism to the modern man who is caught in the web of his own
specious inventions. The Qur’ānic message is the message of hope in an
aura of hopelessness; it is a message of clarity about the creation of man which
lies wrapped in the folds of misinterpretation and over-elaboration, stacked up
by our “one-story” scholars and intellectuals who flaunt confusion as a
virtue and arrogance as a blessing.
. Qur’ān (al-Qīyāmah
. Qur’ān (at-Tāriq
. Qur’ān (as-Sijdah
. Qur’ān (ad-Dahar
. Qur’ān (at-Tāriq
. Ahmad bin Hambal, al-Musnad
. Qur’ān (an-Nahal
. Qur’ān (al-Qiyamah
. Qur’ān (as-Sajdah
. Muslim, as-Sahīh
, b. of nikāh
. Qur’ān (ar-Ra‘ad
. Bukhāri, as-Sahīh
, b. of tafsīr
. Qur’ān (an-Nisā’
. Qur’ān (al-An‘ām
. Qur’ān (az-Zumar
. Qur’ān (Luqmān
. Qur’ān (ad-Dahar
. Qur’ān (an-Nisā’
. Qur’ān (‘Abasa
. The Developing Human; Moore and Persuad- 5th Edition: p-20
. Qur’ān (az-Zumar
. Qur’ān (al-Mominūn
. Qur’ān (al-Baqarah
. The Developing Human With Islamic Additions;’Azzindani 1983, p-40a
. ibid p-40a
. Moore and Persaud, 1993
. Qur’ān (al-‘Alaq
. Qur’ān (al-Mominūn
. The Bible, The Qur’ān and Science; Bucaille p-204
. Qur’ān (al-Mominūn
. ibid p-205
. Moore and Persaud, 1993 p-63
. Qur’ān (al-Mominūn
. ibid p-80a
. Qur’ān (al-Haj
. Moore and Persaud, 1993 p-77
. ibid p-78
. Muslim, as-Sahīh
, b. of qadar
. Qur’ān (al-Mominūn
. ibid p-94a
. Muslim, as-Sahīh
, b. of qadar
. Moore and Persaud, 1993 p-96
. Qur’ān (al-Ahqāf
. Qur’ān (Luqmān
. Qur’ān (al-Baqarah
. Qur’ān (‘Abasa
. Qur’ān (al-A‘lā
. Qur’ān (al-An‘ām
. Qur’ān (al-Haj
. Qur’ān (al-Furqān
. Qur’ān (‘Abasa