Economics of Agriculture Industry in Pakistan Vol. 1

Contents

Preface

Foreword

Chapter 1

Role of Agriculture in Economic Development

1. Abstract

2. Introduction

  1. Significance of the agricultural sector in the economy
  2. Overview of agriculture sector development

3. Hypotheses

4. Discussion

5. Recommendations

References

Chapter 2

Wheat & Flour Industry in Pakistan

1. Abstract

2. The Wheat crop; An Introduction

History

3. Wheat in Pakistan

i. Factors contributing towards yield

ii. Wheat trends in area and production

4. Wheat Production/Agriculture

  1. Wheat plant breeding
  2. Production and consumption statistics
  3. Wheat production to ensure food security
  4. Wheat diseases
  1. Fungal diseases

  2. Bacterial diseases

  3. Wheat as a food

  4. Nutritional facts

  5. Wheat bran

  6. Bran for pets and companion animals

  7. Wheat germ oil

  8. Viral diseases

  9. Insect pests

  10. Nematodes

  11. Mineral and environmental stresses

  12. Current disease attack on Pakistani wheat

5. Wheat grower; the farmer

  1. Gains and losses in wheat
  2. Losses in wheat
  3. Post harvest technology for wheat crop
  4. Control of stored grain pests

6. Wheat flour

7. Current flour crises in Pakistan 2007-2008

Wheat flour crices in the eyes of government officials

8. Experts opinion on wheat flour crices

9. Analysis of the situation

  1. Facts about the wheat crisis?
  2. What to do?

10. Wheat politics

  1. Wheat export
  2. Wheat import
  3. Land reforms
  4. Food department
  5. Functions of the food department
  6. Expectations

11. Wheat trade & economics (global scenario)

  1. Wheat imports & exports
  2. Wheat economics
  3. ecent wheat economic performance
  4. heat economy of Pakistan

12. International wheat scenario

  1. International wheat trade
  2. World markets and wheat trade
  3. Pakistan and international wheat trade
  4. Domestic scenario
  5. Pakistan Afghanistan wheat prospects

13. Future vision

  1. The future trends of Pakistan’s agriculture
  2. Future crop varieties in Pakistan
  3. Food security
  4. Food security goals
  5. Size of strategic and operational reserves
  6. Location of strategic and operational reserves
  7. Water crises

14. Findings & recommendations

  1. Yield per acre
  2. Scarcity of water resources
  3. High concentration of land/land reforms
  4. The ignored farmer/wheat grower
  1. Inefficient fertilizer use
  2. Water shortage
  3. Weed infestation
  4. Wheat research & development
  5. Drought/heat tolerance
  6. Diseases
  7. Salinity
  8. Crop management
  9. Price behavior/support price
  10. Essential prerequisites for seed production
  11. Disease and pest problems
  1. Future research thrusts
  2. Marketing trends, storage facilities, problems
  1. Modern public sector mills
  2. SWOT analysis of the industry
  3. Increased production
  4. Farm service centers
  5. Village to mandi link roads
  6. Integrated pest management
  7. Awareness and education for the farmers & exporters

15. Conclusion

Exhibits

Exhibit 01: Major Wheat Producing Countries of the World

Exhibit 02: Area, Production and Yield of Wheat in Pakistan

Exhibit 03: Monthly whole sale prices of wheat at Lahore

Exhibit 04: Pakistan; Field and Seed Standards

Exhibit 05: Procurement releases and Stocks of Wheat

Exhibit 06: Wheat Flour Production

Exhibit 07: Year wise Export of Wheat

Exhibit 08: Summary of Procurement releases & stocks of Wheat for the period 2000-2006

Exhibit 09: Price Behavior/Support Price

Exhibit 10: Wheat Production Trends in Pakistan

Exhibit 11: Wheat Productivity Improvement (MT/HA)

Exhibit 12: Wheat Yeild Gap Analysis

Exhibit 13: Improved Wheat Varieties

Exhibit 14: Productivity Improvement

Exhibit 15: Year wise Wheat Production

Exhibit 16: Land Utilization (Million Hectares)

Exhibit 17: Exhibit 42: Area under Important Crops (Thousand Hectares)

Exhibit 18: Improved Wheat Varieties

Exhibit 19: Production of Important Crops (Thousand Tonnes)

Exhibit 20: Wheat Flour: Supply & Disappearance (USA)

Exhibit 21: Wheat; Area, Production & Yield (1948-2007)

Exhibit 22: Yield per Hectare & % Variation of Yield of Wheat in Pakistan & FATA

Exhibit 23: World Wheat Supply & Disappearance

Exhibit 24: World & U.S. Wheat production, exports & ending stocks

Exhibit 25: Total all Wheat Food Use (1,000 Grain-Equivalent Bushels)

Exhibit 26: Total all Wheat Food Use, by Component (1,000 Grain-Equivalent Bushels)

Exhibit 27: Total Durum Food Use (1,000 Grain-Equivalent Bushels)

Exhibit 28: Total Durum Food Use, by Component (1,000 Grain-Equivalent Bushels)

Exhibit 29: Wheat: Average Price Received by US Farmers, (Dollars Per Bushel)

Exhibit 30: International Wheat Prices (Dollars per Metric Ton)

Exhibit 31: Wheat: Planted Acreage, Harvested Acreage, Production, Yield, & Farm Price

Exhibit 32: Rye: Planted Acreage, Harvested Acreage, Production, Yield, & Farm Price

Exhibit 33: Exhibit 44: Yield Per Hectare Of Major Crops (Kg/Hectares)

Exhibit 34: World Wheat Production, Consumption, Trade & Stock Positions Since 1960

Exhibit 35: Wheat Trade: Developed vs Developing

Exhibit 36: Comparison of Domestic And International Wheat Prices

Exhibit 37: Wheat vs Atta Prices

Exhibit 38: future crop varieties in pakistan Hard red winter wheat varieties

Exhibit 39: Crop Production Regions In Pakistan

Exhibit 40: Summary of Agricultural Statistics

References

Chapter 3

Cotton & Textile Industry in Pakistan

  1. Introduction
  2. Cotton Industry
  1. History
  2. Production
  3. Leading Cotton-Producing Countries
  4. Characteristics & Species
  5. Genetically Modified Cotton
  6. Organic Cotton
  7. Uses

3. Cotton Processing

4. Domestic Production and Consumption

  1. BT Cotton and Pakistan
  2. BT Cotton in India
  3. BT Cotton in China
  4. BT Cotton in Pakistan
  5. Adoption of Best Practices
  6. The Cotton Purchase Process
  7. The Cotton Imports
  8. Role of Trading Corporation of Pakistan (TCP) in Cotton Import
  9. Effects on Spinning Sector
  10. The Cotton Exports
  1. Cotton Bags
  2. Cotton Fabrics
  3. Cotton Yarn
  1. Garments Ready Made

4. The International Cotton Trade

5. Cotton Crisis

6. Textile Industry

  1. The Textile Exports
  2. Tough Competition
  3. Prospects of Textile Industry

7. Findings & Problems

  1. Pest Attacks
  2. Low Output per Hectare
  3. High Wastage on Spinning
  4. Ginning Operations
  5. Corruption
  6. Governance Issues
  7. Geographical Constraints
  8. Political Apprehensions
  9. Status Issues
  10. Cyclic Nature of Ginning
  11. Effects of MFA Phase-Out
  12. Human Resource Problems
  13. Government’s Role

8. Recommendations & Suggestions

(1) Solutions which can be adopted by the Textile mills

  1. Variable Costing
  2. Re-Location and Integration of Spinning and Ginning Units
  3. Tackling Human Resource Issue
  4. Cotton Import

(2) Proposed Intervention for Government of Pakistan

  1. Encouraging Bt Cotton Cultivation
  2. Forecasting Supply and Demand of Cotton Accurately
  3. Promoting Cultivation of Long Staple Cotton
  4. Improvement of farming methods
  5. Increase in Cotton Growing Areas * Hectare Yield
  6. Higher recovery rate
  7. Revision of Industry requirements
  8. Research & Development
  9. Meeting the Industry Expectations
  10. The Marketing Mechanism & Govt. support

Exhibits

Exhibit 1: Data and trend for Cotton Prices in the local market

Exhibit 2: World’s Top Cotton Producers 2004-2005

Exhibit 3: Location of cotton cultivation areas & spinning industry

Exhibit 4: World’s Highest Yield Achievers, 2004-2005

Exhibit 5: World’s Top Cotton Consumers 2004-2005

Exhibit 6: Types of Imported Cotton

Exhibit 7: World’s Top Cotton Importers

Exhibit 8: Cotton Industry / Textile Value Chain

Exhibit 9: Mealy bug on the stems of the crop

Exhibit 10: High level leaf contamination in picked cotton

Exhibit 11: Sadiqabad - Women line up at dusk to get paid for their picking

Exhibit 12: Organization Chart of Quality Textile Mills Limited

Exhibit 13: Yield in India compared to the world-wide average

Exhibit 14: Area, Production & Yield of Cotton in India

Exhibit 15: Adoption of Bt Cotton in India by State

Exhibit 16: Area wise distribution of Bt cotton crop cultivation in India

Exhibit 17: Textile Industry's Economic Contribution 2005-06

Exhibit 18: The Cotton Purchase Process - Depicted

Exhibit 19: Pakistan Principal Exports

Exhibit 20: Production of Yarn: Province-Wise

References

Chapter 4

Sugar Industry in Pakistan

1. Abstract

2. Introduction

3. Sugarcane Production / Agriculture

  1. Land preparation
  2. Planting time, method and seed rate
  3. Seed Selection
  4. Seed Treatment
  5. Fertilizer application
  6. Weed control
  7. Integrated Pest Management For Sugarcane
  8. Control of diseases
  9. Irrigation
  10. Ratoon crop management
  11. Harvesting
  12. Crushing Capacity of Mills
  13. Important Note

4. Sugar Processing

Step 1. Processing raw sugar from sugarcane

Step 2. Refined sugar production

5. Distribution and Supply Channel

  1. Distribution channel
  2. Value Chain Analysis

6. Sugar Production and Sale

  1. Quality issue in Sugar Production
  2. Sugar Cane production Area
  3. Zone Problem

7. Market Dynamics/ Industry Review

  1. Sugarcane Growers
  2. Sugar Mill Owners

8. Sugar Politics

  1. Politics in Sugar industry
  2. Monopoly and Sugar Crisis
  3. Political Prices
  4. Production Policy
  5. Election 2008 & Sugar Industry

9. Government Role, Regulation and Involvement

  1. Government Decisions
  2. Achieving Self Sufficiency
  3. Research and Development by the Mill Owners

10. International Sugar Scenario

  1. Australian Sugar Industry
  2. Brazilian Sugar Industry
  3. Sugar Surplus and International Sugar pricing

11. Sugar Industry and the Environment

  1. Environmental Impact of Sugar production
  2. Field level Impacts
  3. Soil erosion
  4. Economic and environmental aspects of soil erosion
  5. Water-generated soil erosion
  6. Soil loss at harvest
  7. Impacts on Soil Health
  8. Soil salinisation
  9. Soil acidification
  10. Reducing pollution from sugar mills
  11. Reduced gas and odour production

12. Findings & Suggestions

  1. Sugar recovery
  2. Modern technology
  3. Fertilizer application
  4. Farm Yield
  5. A Farmers Duty
  6. Investment
  7. Marketing system
  8. Government Duty
  9. Availability of sugar to consumers at low prices
  10. Presentation in the International market
  11. Problems of Delayed Crushing Season
  12. Comparitively High Cost of Sugar in Pakistan
  13. European subsidy, de-stabilizing the sugar price in International Market
  14. Wheat Shortage Due to sugar Problem
  15. Sugar Smuggling to Afghanistan and Central Asian States
  16. Water Shortage
  17. High yielding varieties of sugarcane
  18. Initial working capital
  19. Diversification of excess quantity of raw cane
  20. Projection of Demand and Sugar Production Capacity
  21. Research and Development

13. Sugar Industry, the Enemy of Environment

  1. Sugar Production Damages the Environment
  2. Is there any alternative?
  3. What to do? Choice is yours!

14. Conclusion

Exhibits

Exhibit 01: Year wise installed new mills

Exhibit 02: Sugarcane area, production and yield

Exhibit 03: Area production and yield of Sugarcane

Exhibit 04: Sugarcane production in Pakistan

Exhibit : 05: Sugarcane area and production by Province

Exhibit 06: Province wise land used for Sugarcane production, Sugar production & utilization %by mills

Exhibit 07: Province wise mills, area, production & recovery

Exhibit 08: sugarcane Crushing, Sugar Production & Recovery % 1990-91 to 2006-2007 (pakistan)

Exhibit 09: Recommended varieties of Sugarcane

Exhibit 10: Fertilizer recommendations for sugarcane in Pakistan

Exhibit 11: Cane sugar production process

Exhibit 12: Refined sugar production process

Exhibit 13: Sugar Production Technology

Exhibit 14: Value Chain analysis of Sugar industry

Exhibit 15: Molasses production in Pakistan from cane, raw & beet (in tonnes)

Exhibit 16: Area and yield of sugarcane in some major cane growing countries

Exhibit 17: World Cane Sugar Top Producing Countries

Exhibit 18: Yield of sugarcane and sugar recovery in main sugarcane growing countries of the world

Exhibit 19: International Price Comparison Chart (US Dollars/Ton)

Exhibit 20: Government role, regulation and involvement

Exhibit 21: Molasses production in Pakistan from cane, raw & neet (in tonnes)

Exhibit 22: Availability & consumption of refined sugar

Exhibit 23: Sugarcane support price/Season avrg. sugar retail price

Exhibit 24: Sugarcane support price mill-gate delivery (per 40 kg)

Exhibit 25: Projected sale in sugar trade channels 2008

Exhibit 26: Sugar Price Record in Pakistan

References

Chapter 5

Rice Industry in Pakistan

1. Abstract

2. Introduction

3. Background

4. Rice Variety

5. Rice Seeds

6. Fertilizers

7. Pesticides

8. Weedicides

9. Herbicides

10. Rice Cultivation

  1. Production Constraints & Opportunities
  2. Processing & Grain Market
  3. Rice Processing Flowchart

11. Rice Grower; The Farmer

Irrigated Rice Ecosystem

12. Pakistani Rice Exports

Export Trends

13. International Rice Trade

  1. Global Rice Production
  2. Global Rice Market
  3. Global Rice Market Growth
  4. World Rice Consumption
  5. WTO & the Rice Industry

a. Positive Impact of WTO on the Rice Industry

b. Negative Impact of WTO on the Rice Industry

14. Findings & Recommendations

  1. Yield per Acre
  2. Scarcity of Water Resources:
  3. High concentration of land/ Land Reforms
  4. Water Theft
  5. The Ignored Farmer/ Rice Grower:
  6. Support Price System
  7. Financial Aid/ Loans
  8. Lack of adequate Storage Facilities
  9. Lack of financial reserves
  10. Small marketable surplus
  11. Load Shedding & Electricity Breakdowns
  12. Fertilizer / pesticides shortages & Expensive Fuel
  13. Professional Seed Processing
  14. Availability of credit
  15. Labor issues
  16. Lack of branding activities
  17. Rice Import
  18. Unfair Rivalry by India
  19. Un-awareness about the available resources & Potentials
  20. The threat of Look-alikes of super basmati
  21. Non Professional Attitudes
  22. Fraudulent practices
  23. Research in the Rice Industry
  24. Rice Marketing Authority
  25. International Marketing
  26. Pricing Policy
  27. Modern Public Sector Mills
  28. SWOT Analysis of the Industry
  29. Increased Production
  30. Pakistani Rice Branding
  31. Protecting the Rice Brands
  32. Pak-India Joint venture for Basmati-Rice
  33. Farm Service Centers
  34. Village to Mandi Link Roads
  35. Special Attention for Critical Areas
  36. Integrated Pest Management
  37. Improved Production Technology
  38. Technological Advancement & Innovation
  39. Customer Satisfaction by DNA Testing
  40. Awareness & Education for the Farmers & Exporters
  41. Research/Impact Highlights & Policy Initiatives
  42. Priorities for Rice Research Collaboration with IRRI
  43. Collaborative Research & Delivery Opportunities
  44. Hope for a brighter Future

Exhibits

Exhibit 01: Brief Summary of Rice situation in Pakistan

Exhibit 02: Rice echo system

Exhibit 03: Rice production zones in Pakistan

Exhibit 04: Rice production zones/cropping patterns

Exhibit 05: Rice production in Pakistan (1947-2000)

Exhibit 06: Rice growing area in Pakistan

Exhibit 07: Rice processing flowchart

Exhibit 08: Parboiled rice processing

Exhibit 09: Rice processing (A comprehensive approach)

Exhibit 10: Basmati rice, a legacy

Exhibit 11: Problems, needs, research & development priorities

Exhibit 12: Research/impact highlights and policy initiatives

Exhibit 13: Priorities for rice research collaboration with IRRI

Exhibit 14: Collaborative research and delivery opportunities

Exhibit 15: Implementation of Irri collaborative program

Exhibit 16: Farms reporting and area under paddy by size of farm

Exhibit 17: Rice statistics

Exhibit 18: Government help & Policy initiatives

Exhibit 19: World population, a trend

Exhibit 20: Fertilizer recommendations for Crops in Pakistan

Exhibit 21: Fertilizer consumption in Pakistan

Exhibit 22: Fertilizer consumption by product (percentages)

Exhibit 23: Comparison of an average rice yield in different countries

Exhibit 24: List of banned pesticides in Pakistan

Exhibit 25: History of pesticide use in Pakistan

Exhibit 26: Laser land levelling

Exhibit 27: Rice diseases

Exhibit 28: Harvesting Methodology

Exhibit 29: Rice in different stages

Exhibit 30: World rice production (milled basis)

Exhibit 31: World rice market at a glance

Exhibit 32: World rice market

Exhibit 33: World rice market shares

Exhibit 34: World rice import share

Exhibit 35: Percent of Rice production traded among other commodities

Exhibit 36: World Rice Market Segmentation

Exhibit 37: Trend in world rice export

Exhibit 38: Trend in world rice import

Exhibit 39: Global rice price trend

Exhibit 40: Global Rice Market Trends (1985-2003)

Exhibit 41: Area, production and yield of rice

Exhibit 42: Year wise area production & yield

Exhibit 43: Rice export of Pakistan till 2007

Exhibit 44: List of varieties developed through coordinated rice research programme

Exhibit 45: Storage facility; TCP godowns available in Pakistan

Exhibit 46: Average cost of IRRI (Paddy) production

Exhibit 47: Average cost of BASMATI (Paddy) production

Exhibit 48: Rice Export Against Targets

Exhibit 49: Statement Showing Decreasing Trend Of Selected Commodities

References

Chapter 6

Conclusion

Bibliography

About the Author

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