Economics of Agriculture Industry in Pakistan Vol. 2

Contents

Preface

Foreword

Chapter 1

Indian and Pakistani Punjabs
A Comparative Study on Agricultural Development (1947-2007)

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction

2.1 Current Situation

  1. Governmental Policies and Actions

3.1 Pre Green Revolution Period
3.2 Green Revolution in India and Pakistan
3.3 Bhutto’s land reforms and Nationalization in the 1970s
3.4 The 1980s and the Khalistan Issue
3.5 1990s to 2007- Move towards more market driven approaches

  1. Private Sector’s role in Agricultural development of the Punjabs

4.1 Private Sector in Indian Agriculture
4.2 Private Sector in Pakistani Agriculture

  1. The Political & Cultural Issues

5.1 Founding Parties, Subsequent governmental Systems and Agriculture
5.2 Effects of Land ownership structures
5.3 Industrial Development versus Agriculture Development
5.4 Local Governments and Government functionaries
5.5 Level of Education

  1. Conclusion

References

Chapter 2

Pakistan Dairy Sector

Introduction

  1. Pakistani Milk Market

1.1 Population Growth
1.2 Social Patterns
1.3 Health Consciousness
1.4 Consumption Patterns
1.5 Pakistan’s Milk Production

  1. Research Method
  2. Problems with Dairy Industry

3.1 Human Resource
3.2 Technology & Mechanization
3.3 Producers’ Exploitation

  1. Government Initiatives

4.1 Vision 2030
4.2 Agricultural Perspective & Policy
4.3 The White Revolution
4.4 SMEDA – Dairy Sector
4.5 Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd
4.6 Punjab Agri-Marketing Company
4.7 Punjab Log Sujag

  1. Analysis of Dairy Sector Reforms

5.1 Beaurocratic Governance
5.2 Poor Literacy Rate
5.3 Technology Barrier
5.4 People’s Initiative

  1. Conclusion

Exhibits

References

Chapter 3

Citrus Fruits in Pakistan

  1. Introduction

1.1 Citrus Fruit Production in Pakistan
1.2 Export of Citrus Fruit form Pakistan

  1. Punjab: the main area of Citrus growth

2.1 Varieties
2.2 Practices
2.3 Harvesting, picking and grading
2.4 Storage

  1. Management of citrus orchards for higher productivity of quality produce

3.1 Suitable Agro Climate Conditions
3.2 Compatible soil
3.3 Planting geometry
3.4 Preparation for orchard plantation
3.5 Nutrition Requirements for Plants / year
3.6 Time of Fertilizer Application
3.7 Placement of fertilizer
3.8 Intercropping
3.9 Precautions to Apply Irrigation
3.10 Benefits of Citrus pruning
3.11 Plant Protection by applying Pesticide Spray
3.12 Causes of Low Production

  1. Production Problems

4.1 Soil and Climatic Environment
4.2 Unfruitfulness
4.3 Alternate Bearing
4.4 Fruit drop
4.5 Granulation
4.6 Diseases
4.7 Insects
4.8 Bud-wood certification
4.9 Poor Farm Management Practices
4.10 Economic Constraints
4.11 Availability of water
4.12 Harvesting
4.13 Citrus transportation

  1. Strategies for Improvement of Citrus production

5.1 Short term strategies
5.2 Long term strategies

  1. Domestic Market

6.1. Citrus marketing channels
6.2. Citrus contracting system
6.3 Summary of domestic marketing analysis
6.4 Potential for improvement in domestic citrus marketing
6.5 Proposed marketing interventions

  1. Citrus fruit export markets and suggested interventions for improvement

7.1 Export targets
7.2 Citrus (Kinnow production)
7.3 Existing main markets
7.4 Emerging markets
7.5 Allocation of export targets (additional)
7.6 Competition from China
7.7 Proposed Marketing Strategy for 2005/06

  1. The role of WTO sanitary and phytosanitary agreement

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Salient features of the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) agreement
8.3 Key Issues arising from the implementation of SPS
8.4 Participation in the SPS Agreement
8.5 Factors influencing ability of Pakistan to participate effectively in SPS Agreement
8.6 Concerns relating to the implementation of SPS Agreement in Pakistan
8.7 Problems in meeting SPS requirements in exporting agricultural and food products from Pakistan
8.8 SPS measures-concerns of Pakistan
8.9 Wider implications of SPS measures for Pakistan
8.10 Steps needed to meet the SPS challenges
8.11 Specific recommendations

  1. Future challenges and opportunities

9.1 Export to Eastern Europe
9.2 Challenges
9.3 Export of frozen concentrated juices of Citrus

Exhibits

Chapter 4

Pakistan’s Date Palm Industry and Global Challenges

Executive Summary

  1. Introduction

1.1 Date History
1.2 Date: A Rich Fruit
1.2.1 Date Varieties

  1. Cultivation Practices

2.1 Climatic Requirements

2.1.1 Climatic Conditions of Pakistan for Date Palm

2.2 Date Production

  1. Date Products

3.1 Home-made date preparation
3.2 Semi-finished
3.3 Ready for Use
3.4 Derived Date Fruit Products
3.5 Fermentation Products

  1. By-Products of Date Packing and Processing
  2. Palm Products
  3. Date Palm Industry of Pakistan: Gap Analysis

6.1 Date Palm Yield of Pakistan
6.2 Processing Center
6.3 Role of Government

  1. Interview
  2. Conclusion
  3. Recommendations

Exhibits

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

References

Chapter 5

Flower Industry in Pakistan

  1. Introduction
  2. History
  3. Pakistan Horticulture Development & Export Board (PHDEB)

3.1 Mandate
3.2 Objectives

  1. Current Floriculture Industry Structure

4.1 Overview
4.2 Flower Farming – The Pattoki Case
4.2.1 The Local Cluster
4.2.2 Pattoki Cluster Value Chain
4.3 Factor Inputs
4.4 Production Standards
4.4.1 Prerequisites to Quality Production
4.4.2 Barriers to Entry
4.5 Demand Structure–Consumer Usage Patterns
4.6 Pattoki Cluster Diamond Analysis
4.6.1 Factor Conditions
4.6.2 Demand Conditions
4.6.3 Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry
4.6.4 Related and Supporting Industries

  1. World Trade Organizations (WTO) Regulations

5.1 Output

  1. The Role of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
  2. Export Market Analysis

7.1 DFC-Dubai Flower Centre
7.1.1 Closed Loop Supply Chain
7.1.2 Supply Chain Standard
7.1.3 Free Zone
7.2 Indian Cluster – Value Chain Analysis
7.2.1 Harvesting
7.2.2 Pre-Cooling, Deleafing and Grading
7.2.3 Storage and Transportation
7.2.4 Indian Cluster - Value Chain Analysis
7.3 The Kenyan Model
7.3.1 Farming
7.3.2 Post Harvest and Distribution
7.3.3 Kenyan Cluster - Value Chain Analysis
7.4 Exploitation in Colombia
7.5 Benchmarking the Market Leader - Dutch Value Chain
7.5.1 Floral Crop Trends
7.5.2 Market Structure
7.5.3 Auctions
7.5.4 Traders and Wholesalers
7.5.5 Retailers and Consumers

  1. Key Problems

8.1 Greenhouse Farming
8.1.1 Characteristics of a Greenhouse
8.1.2 Farm Inputs
8.2 Marketing
8.3 Agro-processing
8.4 Government Regulations

  1. Recommendations

9.1 Government
9.2 Flower Growers

Case: Indian Greenhouses

Hazards and Externalities

Case: Dutch Cooperative Model in Pakistan

Case: Dutch Investment in Pakistan

Lessons from Colombia: Improving Environmental and Labour Standards Asocolflores’ Strategy

References

Chapter 6

Tea Industry in Pakistan

Chapter 7

Commodity Markets: An Overview

  1. Introduction
  2. Commodity Markets

2.1. How the System Operates

2.2 Commodity Exchange

2.3 Futures Contract

2.4 Options

2.5 How Prices are Determined!

2.6 Clearing House

2.7 The Hedging Concept

2.8 Role of Speculation

2.9 Short Sales

  1. International Commodity Markets

3.1 Commodity Markets in India:
3.2 Commodity Markets in China
3.3 Commodity Markets in Brazil
3.4 Commodity Markets In America

  1. Regulatory Framework

4.1 Indian Forward Markets Commission (FMC)
4.2 China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC)
4.3 Securities and Exchange Commission, Brazil (CVM)
4.4 Securities and Exchange Commission, Brazil (CVM)

  1. Agriculture Commodity Exchange in Pakistan

5.1 Evolution of Commodity Markets in Pakistan

  1. National Commodity Exchange Limited (NCEL)

6.1 Objectives
6.2 Shareholder
6.3 Commodities Trading: Gold and Cotton Yarn
6.4 Technical Setup

  1. Regulatory Framework
  2. Contribution to the Economy
  3. Benefits to the Industry
  4. Recommendations

Chapter 8

The current context for organic farming

Defining organic farming

Organic vs GM

Timeline of developments

Overview of Organic Farming Techniques

Requirements of organic farming

Ownership or tenancy of land

Characteristics and limitations of the soil

Required Capital and Returns

Knowledge base for farm management

Marketing crops

Sustainability of Organic Farming

Organic Farming Growth

Economics of organic farming

Cost of production

Net farm income

Applicability in Pakistan

Chapter 9

Conclusion

Bibliography

About the Author

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