Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings

Detailed Contents: Suicide Bombing and Terrorism





  • Some Important Questions
  • Good Intentions do not Change Vices into Virtues

Chapter 1: The Meaning of Islam

1.1 Islam as Peace and Security
1.2 The Three Levels of Islam
1.3 On the Literal Meaning of the Word Islam
1.4 Islam Means Safety for All of Humanity
1.5 On the Literal Meaning of the Word Iman
1.6 Iman Means Safety for All of Humanity
1.7 On the Literal Meaning of the Word Ihsan
1.8 Summary

Chapter 2: The Unlawfulness of Indiscriminately Killing Muslims

2.1 The Sanctity of a Believer is Greater Than the Ka`ba
2.2 Merely Pointing a Weapon at a Believer is Prohibited
2.3 The Unlawfulness of Violence against Muslims
2.4 The Unlawfulness of Killing Someone Who Accepts Islam in the midst of Fighting
2.5 Becoming an Accomplice to Terrorists is Also a Crime
2.6 Those Who Attack Mosques Are the Greatest Wrongdoers
2.7 Killing a Muslim is a Greater Sin than Destroying the World
2.8 The Massacre of Muslims is an Act of Disbelief
2.9 Like Polytheism, Murder is One of the Greatest Wrongs
2.10 Bloodshed is the Greatest of all Crimes
2.11 Those Who Subject Muslims to Burning through Explosions and Other Means Belong in the Hellfire
2.12 No Act of Worship Performed by a Murderer of a Muslim is Acceptable
2.13 Those Who Torture Muslims Will Face the Torment of Hell
2.14 The Unlawfulness of Suicide
2.15 The Quranic Texts and Hadith Reports on Suicide
2.16 The Condemnation of the Leaders Who Command Others to Commit Suicide
2.17 Paradise is Forbidden for the One Who Commits Suicide
2.18 He Who Commits Suicide during Jihad Will Enter Hell
2.19 The Prophet a Did Not Offer the Funeral Prayer over People Who Committed Suicide

Chapter 3: The Unlawfulness of Indiscriminately Killing Non-Muslims and Torturing Them

3.1 No Discrimination Between the Killings of Muslim and Non-Muslim Citizens
3.2 The Massacre of Civilian Population and Considering it Lawful is an Act of Disbelief
3.3 The Killing of Non-Muslim Citizens Makes Paradise Forbidden for the Killer
3.4 The Unlawfulness of Killing Foreign Delegates and Religious Leaders
3.5 The Retribution [Qisas] of Muslims and Non-Muslims is the Same
3.6 The Unlawfulness of Harming a Non-Muslim Citizen out of Revenge
3.7 The Unlawfulness of Usurping the Wealth of Non-Muslims
3.8 Humiliating Non-Muslim Citizens is Forbidden
3.9 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens from Internal and External Aggression

Chapter 4: The Unlawfulness of Terrorism against Non-Muslims—Even During Times of War

4.1 Preliminary Remarks
4.2 The Unlawfulness of Killing Non-Muslim Women
4.3 The Unlawfulness of Killing the Children of Non-Muslims
4.4 The Unlawfulness of Killing Elderly Non-Muslims
4.5 The Unlawfulness of Killing the Religious Leaders of Non-Muslims
4.6 The Unlawfulness of Killing Non-Muslim Traders and Farmers
4.7 The Unlawfulness of Killing Non-Muslim Service Personnel
4.8 The Unlawfulness of Killing Non-Muslims Who Are Non-combatants
4.9 The Unlawfulness of Waging Night Offensives against Non-Muslims
4.10 The Unlawfulness of Burning Non-Muslims
4.11 The Unlawfulness of Breaking into Enemy Homes and Loot Them
4.12 The Unlawfulness of Destroying the Cattle, Crops and Properties of the Enemy
4.13 Summary

Chapter 5: On the Protection of the Non-Muslims’ Lives, Properties and Places of Worship

5.1 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens during the Time of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
5.2 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens during the Reign of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (R.A.)
5.3 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens during the Reign of `Umar b. al-Khattab (R.A.)
5.3.1 `Umar’s Relaxation of Tax Collection from the Non-Muslim Citizens
5.3.2 Stipends for the Handicapped, Old and Poor Non-Muslim Citizens
5.4 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens during the Reign of `Uthman b. `Affan (R.A.)
5.5 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens during the Reign of `Ali b. Abi Talib (R.A.)
5.6 The Protection of Non-Muslim Citizens during the Reign of `Umar b. `Abd al-`Aziz (R.A.)

Chapter 6: The Unlawfulness of Forcing One’s Belief upon Others and Destroying Places of Worship

6.1 Preliminary Statement
6.2 The Complete Freedom to Practise One’s Religion
6.3 The Unlawfulness of Killing a Non-Muslim and Destroying His or Her Property Due to Religious Differences
6.4 It is a Sunna of the Prophet (PBUH) to Safeguard the Non-Muslims’ Places of Worship
6.5 It is a Religious Obligation to Safeguard the Non-Muslims’ Places of Worship
6.6 The Unlawfulness of Destroying the Non-Muslims’ Places of Worship Located in Muslim-majority Areas

Chapter 7: Legal Maxims Concerning the Basic Rights of the Non-Muslim Citizenry of an Islamic State

7.1 Legal Maxims

Chapter 8: The Unlawfulness of Rebelling Against the Muslim State, Administration and Authority

8.1 What is Rebellion and Who is a Rebel?—Terms, Definitions and Signs
8.2 The Lexical Definition of Rebellion
8.3 The Legal Definition of Rebellion
8.3.1 Rebellion according to the Hanafi School of Jurisprudence
8.3.2 Rebellion According to the Maliki School of Jurisprudence
8.3.3 Rebellion According to the Shafi`i School of Jurisprudence
8.3.4 Rebellion According to the Hanbali School of Jurisprudence
8.3.5 Rebellion According to the Ja`fari School of Jurisprudence
8.3.6 Rebellion According to Contemporary Jurists
8.4 The Legal Definition of ‘Unlawful Warfare’ and ‘Illegal Fighters’
8.5 The Distinguishing Characteristics of Rebels

Chapter 9: Rebellion: Its Gravity and Punishment

9.1 Why is Rebellion a Grave Crime?
9.2 An Important Point
9.3 The Prophet’s (PBUH) Condemnation of Armed Uprising against the Muslim Community
9.4 The Threat of Hell Awaits Those Who Foment Rebellion
9.5 The Unlawfulness of Using Slogans to Incite Hatred and Violence
9.6 Killing Due to Sectarian Differences is Blameworthy

Chapter 10: The Legal Status of Fighting Against a Corrupt Government

10.1 The Unlawfulness of Rebelling against a Government that is not Explicitly Idolatrous
10.2 Raising Arms against Muslims is an Act of Disbelief
10.3 The Legal and Constitutional Way of Changing a Corrupt Government

Chapter 11: Legal Verdicts and Statements from the Four Imams and Eminent Authorities of the Umma against Terrorism and Rebellion

11.1 Imam Abu Hanifa
11.2 Imam al-Tahawi
11.3 Imam Malik
11.4 Imam al-Shafi`i
11.5 Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal
11.6 Imam Sufyan al-Thawri
11.7 Imam al-Mawardi
11.8. Imam al-Sarakhsi
11.9 Imam al-Kasani
11.10. Imam al-Marghinani
11.11 Imam Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi
11.12 Imam al-Nawawi
11.13 `Alim b. al-`Ala' al-Andariti al-Dihlawi
11.14 Imam Ibn Muflih al-Hanbali
11.15 Imam Zayn al-Din b. al-Nujaym
11.16 `Abd al-Rahman al-Jaziri
11.17 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 12: Statements from Contemporary Salafi Scholars Against Terrorists

12.1 Shaykh Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani: The Terrorists are the Kharijites of Our Era
12.2 Shaykh Ibn Baz: Declaring Muslims to be Disbelievers is a Sign of the Kharijites
12.3 Shaykh Salih al-Fawzan: The Terrorists of Today Are a Group of Ignorant Folk
12.4 Mufti Nadhir Husayn al-Dihlawi: Terrorist Activities Are Not Jihad
12.5 Summary

Chapter 13: The Tribulation of the Kharijites and Modern-Day Terrorists

13.1 The Beliefs, Doctrines and Blameworthy Innovations of the Kharijites
13.2 The Definition of a Kharijite
13.3 The Tribulation of the Kharijites as Articulated in the Quran
13.3.1 The Kharijites Possess Deviation in Their Hearts
13.3.2 The Kharijites Are Apostates Whose Faces Will Be Darkened
13.3.3 The Kharijites Are People of Sedition and Ruin
13.3.4 The Kharijites Are at War with God and His Messenger (PBUH) and Must Be Killed
13.3.5 The Kharijites Are Cursed
13.3.6 The Kharijites Presume That They Are Pious
13.4 The Appearance of the Kharijites During the Time of the Prophet (PBUH)
13.5 The Legacy of the Kharijites Began with Disrespect to the Prophet (PBUH)
13.6 The Ideological Development of the Kharijites During the Reign of `Uthman b. `Affan (R.A.)
13.7 The Kharijites During the Reign of `Ali b. Abi talib (R.A.)
13.8 The Beliefs of the Kharijites
13.9 The Psychological Traits of the Kharijites
13.10 How the Kharijites Roused Religious Sentiments
13.11 The Blameworthy Religious Innovations of the Kharijites
13.12 The Research of Imam Abu Bakr al-Ajurri

Chapter 14: The Prophetic Sayings Regarding the Kharijite Terrorists

14.1 The Kharijite Terrorists Will Appear Extremists in Religious Matters
14.2 The Slogans of the Kharijites Will Seem True and Appealing to the Common Man
14.3 The Kharijites Will Brainwash Young People and Use Them for Terrorist Activities
14.4 The Kharijites Will Appear from the East
14.5 The Kharijites Will Continue to Appear until the Emergence of the Anti-Christ
14.6 The Kharijites Will Exit from the Religion
14.7 The Kharijites Will be the Dogs of Hell
14.8 The Outward Religious Appearance of the Kharijites Should Not Fool Anyone
14.9 The Kharijites are the Worst of Creation
14.10 A Noteworthy Point

Chapter 15: The Prophetic Decree That the Turmoil of the Kharijites Must be Eliminated

15.1 It is Obligatory to Eliminate the Kharijites
15.2 Important Commentaries from the Imams of Hadith
15.3 The Significance of Comparing the Kharijites to the People of `ad and Thamud
15.4 The Great Reward for Fighting the Kharijites
15.5 A Comprehensive Description of the Kharijites and Their Signs

Chapter 16: Mention of the Imams Who Charged the Kharijites with Disbelief and Ordered Their Elimination

16.1 The Two Positions of the Imams on the Disbelief of the Kharijites
16.2 The First Position: The Kharijites Are Disbelievers
16.2.1 Imam al-Bukhari’s Position
16.2.2 Imam Ibn Jarir al-Tabari’s Position
16.2.3 Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali’s Position
16.2.4 Al-Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-`Arabi’s Position
16.2.5 Qadi `Iyad’s Position
16.2.6 Imam al-Qurtubi’s Position
16.2.7 Shaykh Ibn Taymiyya’s Position
16.2.8 Imam Taqi al-Din al-Subki’s Position
16.2.9 Imam Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi’s Position
16.2.10 Imam Ibn al-Bazzaz al-Kurdari’s Position
16.2.11 Imam Badr al-Din al-`Ayni’s Position
16.2.12 Imam Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Qastalani’s Position
16.2.13 Mulla `Ali al-Qari’s Position
16.2.14 Shaykh `Abd al-Haqq al-Dihlawi’s Position
16.2.15 Shah `Abd al-`Aziz al-Dihlawi’s Position
16.2.16 Imam Ibn `abidin al-Shami’s Position
16.2.17 Shaykh `Abd al-Rahman Mubarakpuri’s Position
16.3 The Second Position: The Kharijites Are Rebels
16.3.1 Imam Abu Hanifa
16.3.2 Imam Shams al-Din al-Sarakhsi
16.3.3 Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani
16.3.4 Imam Ahmad Rida Khan
16.4 The Rationale behind the Ruling to Eliminate the Kharijites
16.5 The Great Reward Awaiting Those Who Fight the Kharijites
16.6 The Views of Anwar Shah Kashmiri and Shabbir Ahmad `Uthmani on the Kharijites

Chapter 17: Today’s Terrorists are Kharijites

17.1 Condemnation of Those Who Support the Kharijite Terrorists
17.2 An Important Juristic Issue: Labelling the Terrorists as Kharijites is Based on the Quran and Sunna, Not Independent Reasoning [Ijtihad]
17.3 Summary

Chapter 18: The Peaceful Method of Social and Political Struggle

18.1 The Peaceful Method of Struggle in the Muslim State
18.2 The Quranic Command to Enjoin the Good and Forbid the Evil
18.3 The Collective Effort to Enjoin the Good and Forbid the Evil
18.4 Hadith Reports Concerning the Act of Enjoining the Good and Forbidding the Evil
18.5 The Three Levels of Forbidding the Evil
18.6 The Meaning of Forbidding Evil Physically
18.7 Political and Democratic Struggle against Injustice and Oppression
18.8 Muslims Living in Non-Muslim Countries
18.9 Conclusion

Appendix: Scholars Cited in the Fatwa



  • Index of Quranic Verses
  • Index of Hadith Reports and Narrations
  • General Index

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