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The Ghadir Declaration

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Hadith 01 to 10

Hadīth No. 1

عن شعبة، عن سلمة بن كهيل، قال: سمعت أبا الطفيل يحدث، عن أبي سريحة رضي الله عنه — أو زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه (شك شعبة) — عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.

وقد روى شعبة هذا الحديث، عن ميمون أبي عبد الله، عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم.

“Shu‘bah relates it from Salmah bin Kuhayl: I heard it from Abū Tufayl that Abū Sarīhah (RA) — or Zayd bin Arqam (RA) (Shu‘bah has doubts about the narrator) — relates that the Prophet (SAW) said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.

“Shu‘bah has related the tradition from Maymūm Abū ‘Abdullāh, who related it on the authority of Zayd bin Arqam (RA) and he has related it from the Holy Prophet (SAW).”[1]

Hadīth No. 2

عن عمران بن حصين رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: ما تريدون من علي؟ ما تريدون من علي؟ ما تريدون من علي؟ إن عليا مني وأنا منه، وهو ولي كل مؤمن من بعدي.

“‘Imrān bin Husayn (RA) has narrated that Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) said: What do you people want about ‘Alī? What do you people want about ‘Alī? What do you people want about ‘Alī? Then added: Surely ‘Alī is from me and I am from ‘Alī and after me he is the guardian of every believer.”[2]

Hadīth No. 3

عن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه، قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، وسمعته يقول: أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي، وسمعته يقول: لأعطين الراية اليوم رجلا يحب الله ورسوله.

“It is related by Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās (RA): I heard Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) say: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. And I heard him say (to ‘Alī (RA)): You are in my place as Hārūn was in Mūsā’s place, but there is no prophet after me. And I also heard him say (on the occasion of the battle of Khaybar): Today I shall bestow the flag on the person who loves Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW).”[3]

Hadīth No. 4

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: أقبلنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في حجته التي حج، فنزل في بعض الطريق، فأمر الصلاة جامعة، فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألست أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألست أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فهذا ولي من أنا مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، اللهم! عاد من عاداه.

“Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA) narrates: We performed hajj with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). On the way he stayed at a place and commanded us (to establish) the prayer in congregation. After this, he held ‘Alī’s hand, and said: Am I not nearer than the lives of the believers? They replied: Why not! He said: Am I not nearer than the life of every believer? They replied: Why not! He said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him and be the enemy of one who is his enemy.”[4]


Hadīth No. 5

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: كنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في سفر، فنزلنا بغدير خم، فنودي فينا: الصلاة جامعة، وكسح لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم تحت شجرتين، فصلى الظهر وأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه. قال: فلقيه عمر رضي الله عنه بعد ذلك، فقال له: هنيئا يا ابن أبي طالب! أصبحت وأمسيت مولى كل مؤمن ومؤمنة.

“It is narrated by Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA): We were on a journey with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). (On the way) we stayed at Ghadīr Khum. There it was announced that the prayer was about to be offered. The space under two trees was cleaned for Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). Then he offered the zuhr (noon) prayer, and, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the lives of the believers? They said: Why not! He said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the life of every believer? They said: Why not! The narrator says that he said while holding ‘Alī’s hand: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. The narrator says that after this ‘Umar (bin al-Khattāb (RA)) met ‘Alī (RA) and said to him: O Ibn Abī Tālib! Congratulations, you have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”[5]

Hadīth No. 6

عن ابن بريدة عن أبيه، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: من كنت وليه فعليّ وليه.

“Ibn Buraydah has attributed it to his father: Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) said: One who has me as his guardian has ‘Alī as his guardian.”[6]

Hadīth No. 7

عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، قال: لما رجع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم من حجة الوداع، ونزل غدير خم، أمر بدوحات فقمن، فقال: كأني قد دعيت فأجبت، إني قد تركت فيكم الثقلين، أحدهما أكبر من الآخر: كتاب الله تعالى، وعترتي، فانظروا كيف تخلفوني فيهما، فإنهما لن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض. ثم قال: إن الله عز وجل مولاي، وأنا مولى كل مؤمن. ثم أخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فهذا وليه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه.

“It is narrated by Zayd bin Arqam (RA): When Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) was returning after the Hajjat-ul-wadā‘, he stayed at Ghadīr Khum. He commanded that a canopy should be put up and so it was done. Then he said: It seems as if I am about to breathe my last which I shall accept. Indeed, I am leaving two important things in your midst which exceed each other in importance: One (is) Allāh’s Book and the other (is) my progeny. Now it is to be seen how do you treat both of them after me and they will not be separated from each other, and they will appear before me at the Fountain of kawthar. Then added: Surely Allāh (SWT) is my Master and I am the master of every believer. Then, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy.”[7]

Hadīth No. 8

عن ابن واثلة أنه سمع زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، يقول: نزل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بين مكة والمدينة عند شجرات خمس دوحات عظام، فكنس الناس ما تحت الشجرات، ثم راح رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عشية، فصلى، ثم قام خطيبًا، فحمد الله وأثنى عليه، وذكر ووعظ، فقال ما شاء الله أن يقول، ثم قال: أيها الناس! إني تارك فيكم أمرين، لن تضلوا إن اتبعتموهما، وهما كتاب الله، وأهل بيتي عترتي، ثم قال: أتعلمون إني أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ ثلاث مرات، قالوا: نعم. فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.

“Ibn Wāthilah is reported to have heard from Zayd bin Arqam (RA) that the Prophet (SAW) was camping between Makkah and Medina near five dense trees. The people cleaned the place under the trees and he rested there for some time. He offered the prayer and then stood up to address the people. He praised Allāh (SWT), gave some advice to the audience and then said whatever Allāh (SWT) wanted him to say. He said: O people! I am leaving two things with you. You will never go astray as long as you follow them and these (two things) are Allāh’s Book and my progeny. He then added: Don’t you know I am nearer than the lives of the believers? He repeated it three times. Everyone said: yes. Then he said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[8]

Hadīth No. 9

عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، قال: خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم حتى انتهينا إلى غدير خم، فأمر بروح فكسح في يوم ما أتى علينا يوم كان أشدّ حرًا منه، فحمد الله وأثنى عليه، وقال: يا أيها الناس! أنه لم يبعث نبي قط إلا ما عاش نصف ما عاش الذي كان قبله، وإني أوشك أن أدعى فأجيب، وإني تارك فيكم ما لن تضلوا بعده كتاب الله عز وجل. ثم قام فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: يا أيها الناس! من أولى بكم من أنفسكم؟ قالوا: الله ورسوله أعلم. ألست أولى بكم من أنفسكم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.

“Zayd bin Arqam (RA) narrates: We set out with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) until we reached Ghadīr Khum. He commanded that a canopy should be put up. He looked tired on that day and it was a very hot day. He praised Allāh (SWT) and then said: O people, out of the prophets Allāh (SWT) sent, each new prophet had a life span half as much as that of his predecessor, and it seems to me that soon I may be called (to breathe my last) which I shall accept. I am leaving in your midst something that will never let you go astray, and that is the Book of Allāh (SWT). Then he stood up, held ‘Alī’s hand and said: O people, who is he who is nearer than your lives? All of them said: Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW) know better. (Then added:) Am I not nearer than your lives? They said: Why not! He said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[9]

Hadīth No. 10

عن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه، قال: لقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول في علي رضي الله عنه ثلاث خصال، لأن يكون لي واحدة منهن أحب إلي من حمر النعم:

سمعته يقول: إنه بمنزلة هارون من موسى، إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي، وسمعته يقول: لأعطين الراية غدا رجلا يحب الله ورسوله، ويحبه الله ورسوله، وسمعته يقول: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.

“Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās (RA) says that he heard Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) describe three qualities of ‘Alī (RA). Had I possessed anyone of them, it would have been dearer to me than red camels.

“I heard him say: Indeed, he (‘Alī) is in my place as Hārūn was in Mūsā’s place, but there is no prophet after me. And I heard him say: Today I shall bestow the flag on the person who loves Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW), and Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW) love him too. And I heard him say: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[10]


Refrences

[1]. Tirmidhī has declared it fair, sound and weak (hasan sahīh gharīb) in al-Jāmi‘us-sahīh, b. of manāqib (merits) 6:79 (#3713), and Shu‘bh, in the manner of Maymūn Abū ‘Abdullah, has also related it on the authority of Zayd bin Arqam (RA). Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:569 # 959); Mahāmilī, Amālī (p.85); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:195, 204 # 5071, 5096); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (pp.603, 604 # 1361, 1363, 1364, 1367, 1370); Nawawī, Tahdhīb-ul-asmā’ wal-lughāt (p.318); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:163, 164); Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah (6:132); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:463); and ‘Asqalānī in Ta‘jīl-ul-manfa‘ah (p.464 # 1222).

It has been related from ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Abbās رضي الله) عنهما) in the following books:

  1. Hākim, al-Mustadrak (3:134 # 4652).
  2. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (12:78 # 12593).
  3. Khatīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Baghdad (12:343).
  4. Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:108).
  5. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:77, 144).
  6. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:451).

This tradition has been related on the authority of Jābir bin ‘Abdullāh رضي الله عنهما)) in the following books:

  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.602 # 1355).
  2. Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:59 # 12121).

This tradition has been reproduced from Abū Ayyūb al-Ansārī (RA):

  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.602 # 1354).
  2. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (4:173 # 4052).
  3. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (1:299 # 348).

This tradition has been related by Sa‘d (RA) in the following books:

  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (pp.602,605#1358,1375).
  2. Diyā’ Maqdisī, al-Ahādīth-ul-mukhtārah (3:139 # 937).
  3. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (20:114).

The following narrated it through Buraydah (RA):

  1. ‘Abd-ur-Razzāq, al-Musannaf (11:225 # 20388).
  2. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-us-saghīr (1:71).
  3. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:143).

This tradition has been reproduced from Ibn Buraydahرضي الله عنهما)) in the following books:

  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.601 # 1353).
  2. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:146).
  3. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:457).
  4. Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32904).

The following transmitted it through Hubshā bin Junādah (RA):

  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.602 # 1359).
  2. Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:608 # 32946).

This tradition has been related from Mālik bin Huwayrith in the following books:

  1. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (19:252 # 646).
  2. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:177).
  3. Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:106).

Tabarānī related it from Hudhyfah bin Usayd al-Ghifārī (RA) in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (3:179 # 3049).

Ibn ‘Asākir has narrated it through Hasan bin Hasan in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (15:60,61).

Ibn ‘Asākir related it from Abū Hurayrah, ‘Umar bin al-Khattāb, Anas bin Mālik and ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Umar (RA) in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:176, 177, 178, 178) respectively.

Ibn ‘Asākir related it from Buraydah (RA) with slightly different words in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:143).

Ibn Athīr narrated it through ‘Abdullāh bin Yāmīl in Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah (3:412).

Haythamī narrated it through Abū Burdah رضي الله عنهما)) in Mawārid-uz-zam’ān (p.544 # 2204).

‘Asqalānī said in Fath-ul-bārī (7:74): Tirmidhī and Nasā’ī narrated the tradition and it is supported by numerous chains of transmission.

Albānī says in Silsilat-ul-ahādīth-is-sahīhah (4:331 # 1750) that its chain of authorities is sahīh (sound) according to the conditions of Bukhārī and Muslim.

[2]. Tirmidhī narrated it in al-Jāmi‘-us-sahīh, b. of manāqib (merits) 6:78 (#3712); Nasā’ī with the sound chains of transmission in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.77, 92 # 65, 86), and as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:132 # 8484); Ahmad bin Hambal in Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:620 # 1060), and the last words of the tradition narrated in his Musnad (4:437, 438) are:

وقد تغير وجهه, فقال: دعوا عليا, دعوا عليا, إن علي مني وأنا منه, وهو ولي كل مؤمن بعدي.

And his face flashed. Then he said: give up (opposing) ‘Alī, give up (opposing) ‘Alī. Surely ‘Alī is from me and I am from ‘Alī and after me he is the guardian of every believer.

Ibn Kathīr also narrated it with these words in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:458).

Hākim in al-Mustadrak (3:110,111#4579) has declared this tradition sound according to the conditions laid down by Imām Muslim while Dhahabī has kept silent about it.

Abū Ya‘lā has narrated it in al-Musnad (1:293 # 355) and its narrators are men of integrity while Ibn Hibbān has also called it sound.

The tradition in Tayālisī’s Musnad (p.111#829) also contains these words: The Prophet (SAW) said:

ما لهم ولعلي؟

Why are they so concerned about ‘Alī?

Ibn Hibbān narrated it with a firm (qawī) chain of transmission in as-Sahīh (15:373, 374 # 6929).

Ibn Abī Shaybah narrated it in al-Musannaf (12:80 # 12170); Abū Nu‘aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (6:294); Muhib Tabarī, ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-‘ashrah (3:129); Haythamī, Mawārid-uz-zam’ān (p.543 # 2203); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:142 # 36444).

[3]. Ibn Mājah transmitted this sahīh (sound) hadīth in the preface (al-muqaddimah) to his Sunan (1:90 # 121); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.608 # 1386); Mizzī, Tuhfat-ul-ashrāf bi-ma‘rifat-il-atrāf (3:203 # 3901); and Nasā’ī reproduced it with slightly different words in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīm ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp. 32,33 #91).

[4]. Ibn Mājah narrated this sound hadīth (tradition) in preface (al-muqaddimah) to his Sunan (1:88 # 116); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:168); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32904); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:167, 168); and Ibn ‘Abī ‘Āsim briefly mentioned in as-Sunnah (p.603 # 1362).

[5]. Ahmad bin Hambal related it from Barā’ bin ‘Āzib through two different chains of transmission in al-Musnad (4:281); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:78 # 12167); Muhib Tabarī, Dhakhā’ir-ul-‘uqbā fī manāqib dhawī al-qurbā (p.125), ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-‘ashrah (3:126, 127); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:133, 134 # 36420); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (5:167, 168); Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (4:103); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:169; 5:464).

Ahmad bin Hambal in his book Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:610 # 1042) has added the following words in the tradition related to ‘Umar bin al-Khattāb (RA). The Prophet (SAW) said:

وعاد من عاداه, وانصر من نصره, وأحب من أحبه.
قال شعبة: أو قال: و ابغض من أبغضه.

(O Allāh!) Be the enemy of one who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy, and help him who helps him, and love him who loves him.

Shu‘bah says that the Prophet (SAW) said in its place, “Bear malice towards him who bears malice towards (‘Alī).”

Manāwī has written in Fayd-ul-qadīr (6:217) that when Abū Bakr (RA) and ‘Umar (RA) had heard the Prophet’s saying — One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master — they said to ‘Alī (RA) : O son of Abū Tālib! You have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”

Dhahabī has said in Siyar a‘lām-in-nubalā’ (2:623, 624) that ‘Umar (RA) uttered the words:

هنيئا لك يا علي!

O ‘Alī! Congratulations.

[6]. Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in al-Musnad (5:361), and Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:563 # 947); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (pp.601, 603 # 1351, 1366); Hākim, al-Mustadrak (2:131 # 2589); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:57 # 12114); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:166 # 4968), al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (3:100, 101 # 2204); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:143); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:108); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32905).

The same tradition has been reproduced by Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (15:168, 169 # 36511), using slightly different words and he says that it has been narrated by Ibn Rāhawayh and Ibn Jarīr.

Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it through Fātimah (رضي الله عنها) also in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:142).

[7]. Hākim narrated it in al-Mustadrak (3:109 # 4576); Nasā’ī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:45, 130 # 8148, 8464); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:166 # 4969); and Ibn Abī ‘Āsim related it briefly in as-Sunnah (p.644 # 1555).

Nasā’ī related it with a sound chain of authorities in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.84, 85 # 76).

Abū Mahāsin copied it in al-Mu‘tasar min-al-mukhtasar min Mashkal-il-āthār (2:301).

[8]. Hākim related it in al-Mustadrak (3:109, 110 # 4577); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (1:381 # 1657); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:164); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:168).

[9]. Hākim graded it sahīh (sound) according to the conditions of Bukhārī and Muslim in al-Mustadrak (3:533 # 6272) and Dhahabī confirmed its soundness. Tabarānī transmitted it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:171,172 # 4986); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32904).

[10]. Nasā’ī narrated it with sound chain of trasmission in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīm ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.33, 34, 88 # 10, 80); and Hindī related it in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (15:163 # 36496) through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d with the addition of a few words.

Shāshī narrated it through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās in al-Musnad (1:165, 166 # 106).

Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d and Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:88).


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