رضي الله عنه radiyallahu anhu — Allah is pleased with him; used after
the names of Companions of the Prophet (SAW).
رضي الله عنها radiyallahu anha — Allah is pleased with her; used after
the name of a female Companion of the Prophet (SAW).
رضي الله عنهم radiyallahu anhum — Allah is pleased with all of them; used
after the names of more than two male Companions of the Prophet (SAW).
رضي الله عنهما radiyallahu anhuma — Allah is pleased with both of them;
used after the names of two Companions of the Prophet (SAW), irrespective of their
u alayh-is-salam —Allah’s peace is on him; used after the names of Allah’s
messengers, prophets and angels.
عليهما السلام alayhim-as-salam — Allah’s peace is on both of them; used
after the names of two messengers, prophets and angels.
A sallallahu layhi wa alihi wa sallam
—Allah sends blessings and salutations on him and his children; is used after the
name of the Last Messenger of Allah (SAW).
كرم الله وجهه Title reserved for Ali alone. It means, ‘Allah has honoured
Ahl kisaa “the people of the garment/cloak/mantle”. According to a tradition,
the Holy Prophet went out one morning at the time of the visit of the Najran delegation
in 10/631 wearing a figured black cloak; first Fatimah, then Ali and then Hasan
and Husain came and he took them under his cloak. It is called hadith al-kisaa (the
tradition of the mantle/cloak/ garment).
Ahl-ul-bait “the People of the House”. A term used in the Quran (33:33)
and in traditions for the Holy Prophet’s Household. Together with the wives of the
Prophet, it includes Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husain.
Ar-Rukn al-Yamani “the Yamanite Pillar” of the Kabah.
Arsh the term used in the Quran for the Throne of Allah: “He is the Lord
of the mighty throne (arsh). (Quran 4:131)”
Bani Israeel “the Children of Israeel”. The phrase is applied to the children
Burraq a heavenly animal made of light, bigger than a donkey and smaller
than a horse, on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) went for the Miraj.
Fajr dawn or early morning before sunrise; morning prayer.
Hadith (pl. ahadith) lit. tradition. The sayings, practice and silent
approval of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
Hasan a hadīth, narrated by a reliable chain of narrators though not reaching
the grade of sahih (sound) hadith, but records a complete chain of narrators up
to the Prophet (SAW).
Hur (the plural of haura) very fair women of Paradise.
Isnad chain of transmission of a tradition.
Jahiliyyah “ignorance”. The term refers to pre-Muslim period.
Jibrail/Jibril the angle Gabriel. Jibrail was appointed by Allah to convey
His Messages to His prophets and messengers.
Kabah a cube-shaped building -at the centre of al-Masjid-ul-Haram (the
great mosque at Makkah)- towards which all Muslims face in prayer which is why it
is also known as the qiblah. It is also known as the House of Allah.
Kawthar lit. “abundance”. A pond in Paradise known as the Haud-ul-Kawthar
or “the Pond of Abundance”.
Kufah a city on the west bank of the river Euphrates, about four days
march from Baghdad. It was the capital town of the Commander of the Believers, Ali.
Mahshar the place where people will gather together on the Day of Judgement.
Maqam Ibrahim the stone at Makkah within the boundary of al-Masjid-ul-Haram,
which has the impression of the footprints of the Prophet Ibrahim (SAW). This is
the stone on which Ibraham (u) stood while he and his son, the prophet Ismail (u),
were building the kabah.
Marfu a tradition which is traced back to the Holy Prophet (SAW) without
any defect in transmission.
Maryam the mother of prophet Isa; Mary.
Mimbar a pulpil in a mosque from which a sermon is delivered.
Qiblah direction one faces in prayer, towards Makkah.
Rahman “the Infinite Beneficence or Goodness of Allah”. It is one of the
ninety-nine names or attributes of Allah. Ar-Rahman is a more exalted attribute
than ar-Rahim. It expresses that the universal attribute of mercy which the Almighty
extends to all mankind, the wicked and the good, believers and unbelievers.
Rawi a transmitter of traditions.
Sahih "sound". A hadith with an unbroken chain of narrators reported from
the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) through reliable narrators without being shādh (odd)
or muallal (faulty) in between any two relaters.
Shafaah “intercession”. The belief of the Muslims that the Holy Prophet
is an Intercessor and that he will intercede on the behalf of the Believers on the
Day of Judgement by the permission of Allah.
Sirat lit. “a road”. It is commonly used for the bridge across the Hell-Fire.
It is finer than a hair and sharper than a sword. The righteous will pass over it
with the swiftly, but the wicked will lose their footing and fall into the fire
Sunnah It is exclusively referred to the practice and ways of the Messenger
of Allah, Muhammad (SAW).
Umm Salma one of the wives of the Holy Prophet (SAW). She was the widow
of Abu Salmah. Abu Salmah was martyred at Uhud, and the Messenger of Allah married
his widow four months later.
Ummah “nation, people, generation, community”. It is used in reference
to the community of Believers or Muslims.
Umm-ul-muminim “the Mother of the Believers”. A title in the Quran which
is applied to each of the wives of the Holy Prophet: “…his (the Prophet’s) wives
are their mothers… (Quran 33:6) ”
Wali legal guardian.