سبحانہ و تعالیٰ subhanahu wa taala — glorified and exalted is He; used after the name of Allah.
صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam — may Allah sends blessings and salutations on him and his children; used after the name of the Last Messenger of Allah (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم).
علیہ السلام alayh-is-salam — may Allah’s send peace on him; used after a single name of Allah’s messenger, prophet and angel.
رضی اللہ عنہ radiyallahu anhu — may Allah be pleased with him; used after a single name of a male Companion of the Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم).
رضی اللہ عنھما radiyallahu anhuma — may Allah be pleased with both of them; used after the names of two Companions of the Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم), irrespective of their gender.
رضی اللہ عنھا radiyallahu anha — may Allah be pleased with her; used after a single name of a female Companion of the Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم).
alhamdu lillah — praise be to Allah.
Allahu akbar — Allah is the greatest.
ar-rafiq-ul-ala — the Highest Companion. It refers to such companions as are granted the most exalted place in the highest rank of Paradise. They have been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an: All who obey Allah and the Messenger will be among those whom Allah has bestowed His blessings: the prophets and those who never deviated from the truth and the martyrs and the righteous ones (an-Nisa 4:69)!
asr — the afternoon prayer.
dhikr — In its verbal significance it implies to remember, to praise by frequently mentioning, to rehearse, to celebrate or commemorate, to make much of, to cherish the memory of as a precious possession.
dua — supplication to Allah.
fajr — dawn or early morning before sunrise; morning prayer.
hajj — The Pilgrimage to Makkah, the fifth pillar of Islam, is performed in the month of Zul Hijjah. All such Muslims as can afford this Pilgrimage and are physically able must make the Pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in their life.
imam — leader of prayers in a mosque.
iqamah — lit. “causing to stand”. It is the second call to prayer when the imam and the worshippers are ready to offer the prayer collectively. It is the same as the adhan (the call to prayer) with the addition of one sentence.
isha — the night prayer.
Jibrail/Jibril — the angle Gabriel. Jibrail was appointed by Allah to convey His Messages to His prophets and messengers.
jihad — lit. “effort, struggle”. Jihad means much more than the holy war. One of the main meanings of Jihad – which is meant here – is the internal spiritual struggle to live up to Islamic teachings. The word “jihad” is often wrongly translated as “holy war”. The primary aim of jihad is not the conversion of non-Muslims to Islam by force, but rather the defense of the Islamic state.
la ilaha illallah — lit. “There is no god but Allah.” It is the first part of the declaration of the Islamic Faith. The whole declaration of Faith is la ilaha illallah Muhammadur Rasulullah (There is no god but Allah: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah).
maghrib — the sunset prayer.
mufarradun — people who stay away from others. In the context of the tradition mufarradun means those men and women who make frequent remembrance of Allah.
siddiq —lit. “the one who never deviates from the truth”. A high rank of Muslim saints.
subhan Allah — Allah is pure.
ummah — “nation, people, generation, community”. It is used in reference to the community of Believers or Muslims.
umrah — A Lesser Pilgrimage to the sacred mosque at Makkah. It may be performed at any time except the eight, ninth and tenth days of the month of Zul Hijjah.
zakah — lit. “purification”. It is the third pillar of Islam. Zakah is the compulsory giving of 2.5% of one’s wealth in charity. It is a religious duty on Muslims who possess a certain amount of money to spend in Allah’s path yearly. It is meant to purify a person’s income. The proceeds of this money are spent mainly on the poor. It is an act of worship, not a religious tax.
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